Monthly Archives: December 2013

Coal Combustion Products

Coal combustion products (CCPs) can play an important role in concrete production.  CCPs are the by-products generated from burning coal in coal-fired power plants. These by-products include: – fly ash – bottom ash – boiler slag – flue gas de-sulphurisation gypsum – others types of material such as fluidised bed combustion ash, cenospheres, and scrubber Continue Reading

Coal Reserves

Coal reserves are available in almost every country worldwide, with recoverable reserves in around 70.  At current production levels, proven coal reserves are estimated to last 164 years.  In contrast, proven oil and gas reserves are equivalent to around 41 and 67 years respectively.  Over 68% of oil and 67% of gas reserves are concentrated Continue Reading

Economic Impact of Coal Mining in South Africa

South Africa is one of the seven largest coal-producing and one of the top five coal-exporting countries in the world. More than a quarter of coal mined in South Africa is exported, most of which leaves the country via Richards Bay.  Coal is South Africa’s third largest source of foreign exchange; platinum being the largest Continue Reading

Coal Mining in South Africa

South Africa produces in excess of 255 million tonnes of coal (2011 estimate) and consumes almost three quarters of that domestically.  Around 77% of South Africa’s energy needs are directly derived from coal and 92% of coal consumed on the African continent is produced in South Africa. The use of coal in South Africa dates Continue Reading